Author Archives: Betty Cooper

LLEWELLIN’S KIDSGROVE: First Impressions

Saint-Thomas's-The-Avenue-Kidsgrove

In 1922, the Rev Frederick George Llewellin, a graduate of Durham University, became the Vicar of Kidsgrove.

Frederick wrote a book “The Lighter Side of a Parson’s Life” about his ministry in the parish and the boat people he married in St. Thomas’s Church. In this edited extract from the book, he describes his first impressions of Kidsgrove and The Potteries:

Ignoring all prophesies that I would not stand the strain for more than three months, I accepted the benefice of Kidsgrove in autumn 1921.

The parish is six miles north-east of Stoke-upon-Trent and ten miles south-west of Crewe. Thus, we are outside The Potteries, and I am glad that we are. The pottery people are so terrible in their cynicism. Observing that I had “come from the country” one of them asked me if I would like a nice calendar. Naturally, I said “Yes” and thanked him most heartily for his generous offer.

But what diabolical plot was ever so cruelly played upon an unsuspecting yokel. My wife and I opened the envelope containing the calendar when the postman brought it.

Like most women, my wife hates spending money to replace broken crockery. You can imagine the look on her face when we saw he had sent us a calendar with a picture of a large black cat dancing a on a breakfast table and smashing all the best cups and saucers. Underneath the illustration, the villain had arranged for this inscription to be printed:

Good luck to the cat that breaks the crocks
In pieces very small,
For things like this they do us good
And benefit us all.

There are about 5,500 parishioners in Kidsgrove. Most of them are employed in the coal mining industry, in engineering, in the chemical industry or on the railway. Some work in the pottery industry and travel daily to factories in Tunstall and Burslem.

Last, but certainly not least, I have a small “moving population” of boat people known locally as the “Bargees”. People who have read the stories about these “Water Gipsies” by L. T. Meade already know something about my Kidsgrove Bargees, of whom I am intensely fond.

Post: Copyright 2020 North Staffordshire Heritage

(Photograph of St. Thomas’s Church, Kidsgrove © Copyright Galatas and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence.)

FOCUS ON KIDSGROVE: The Harecastle Tunnels

Harecastle- railway-tunnel- north-portal-south-tunnel-kidsgrove

Two railway tunnels, three cuttings and a defile took the North Staffordshire Railway Company’s mainline under Harecastle Hill which separated Kidsgrove and Chatterley.

The first trains ran through the cuttings and the tunnels on 9 October 1849 when the section of track linking Kidsgrove with Stoke opened. Before reaching the first cutting, trains travelling south from Kidsgrove to The Potteries crossed a bridge over the Trent and Mersey Canal. As the train went over the bridge, passengers looking out of the carriage windows could see the two tunnels that took the canal through the hill.

The Canal Tunnels

The first canal tunnel was constructed by James Brindley and his brother in law Hugh Henshall. It opened in 1777 and was 2,880 yards long, 12 feet high and 9 feet wide. The tunnel was so narrow that boats travelling in opposite directions could not go through it at the same time. Boats going south had to wait at Kidsgrove until it was their turn to enter the tunnel. Boats going north had to wait at Chatterley until the ones coming from Kidsgrove had passed through. Because it was not wide enough to have a towpath, the boats had to be “legged” through the tunnel.

As traffic increased, the delays caused by long queues of boats waiting to go into the tunnel infuriated local industrialists. Faced with the possibility that pottery manufacturers would build a railway, the canal’s owner, the Trent and Mersey Canal Company, decided to construct a second tunnel at Harecastle. The company employed Thomas Telford to build it. The new tunnel cost £112,581 and was opened on 30 April 1827.

The Railway Cuttings and Tunnels

Railways came to The Potteries in the mid-1840s when the North Staffordshire Railway Company was founded. Trains that the company planned to run linking Stoke with Macclesfield and Crewe had to go through Harecastle Hill. Civil engineering contractor, Thomas Brassey was employed to build two railway tunnels and make a series of cuttings between Kidsgrove and the Chatterley Valley.

The first cutting a train travelling south from Kidsgrove to Stoke came to was a narrow roofed cutting, called a defile, near St. Thomas’s Church and Kidsgrove parsonage.

The defile was about 150 yards long. It had stone walls and a brick roof to prevent noise from trains interrupting church services. When it left the defile, the train passed through a cutting which was about 300 yards long and about 75 feet deep before entering a short tunnel called the North Tunnel. The tunnel, which was 183 yards long, took the railway under Boathorse Road. On leaving the North Tunnel, the train went into another cutting that led to the South Tunnel which was 1,768 yards long.

The northern entrance to the South Tunnel was near where Boathorse Road changes its name to Nelson Bank. The tunnel ran through the hill to Chatterley where its southern entrance was in a cutting near Lowlands Road. Although built at a higher level than the two canal tunnels, for most of its length the South Tunnel ran between them.

Building the South Tunnel

Brassey employed about 1,600 men to build the South Tunnel. No less than 15 shafts were sunk from the surface of the hill to the level of the tunnel. Because of the hill’s undulating nature, the shafts varied in depth from 25 to 60 yards. At the top of the shafts, there were steam engines which lowered building materials for the men working below and brought soil to the surface. Before the work started, an underground roadway was driven into the hill to take supplies to the men building the tunnel. 

The roadway, which civil engineers called a drift, was six feet wide and six feet high.

Workers began to construct the entrances to the tunnel at Kidsgrove and Chatterley. At the same time, gangs of men were digging the tunnel northwards and southwards from the bottom of the shafts. The part of the tunnel they built linked the shafts which became air vents when it opened. 

Offices, stables, a few cottages and a mill for grinding cement were erected on the summit of Harecastle Hill. The bricks used to build the tunnel were made by brickworks in the Chatterley Valley. A tramway was laid over the hill to take bricks to Kidsgrove.

The South Tunnel took two years to build, and it is estimated that 15 million bricks were used in its construction.

Copyright 2020 North Staffordshire Heritage

(Photograph of the north portal of the South Tunnel at Harecastle © Copyright Jonathan Hutchins and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence.)

The Pottery Industry in the 1960s

During the 1960s, The Potteries was a hive of industrial activity. Skilled crafts-persons working in the six towns made the best pottery in the world.

About 90% of the bone china, earthenware, tiles, porcelain, bricks and sanitary ware produced in the United Kingdom came from Stoke-on-Trent.

Pottery workers were proud of their skills and expertise. They took pride in their work, and the ware they made was exported all over the world.

The seeds of North Staffordshire’s industrial development were sown in the 14th century.

Iron ore was mined in Tunstall and at Apedale. Small pot banks, which used local clay to make earthenware, were scattered in isolated villages throughout the district. There were coal seams near the surface, and miners risked their lives working in drift mines and bell pits to get coal to fire the ware.

Industrialisation came to The Potteries in the 18th century when entrepreneurs like Josiah Wedgwood, William Adams, Josiah Spode and Thomas Whieldon built factories that produced good quality ware which was sold at prices people could afford.

During the 19th century, the pottery industry and the coal mining industry expanded rapidly. The population increased and the six towns we know today were created. New factories were built and the smoke from numerous bottle ovens and kilns polluted the atmosphere.

As late as 1939, the pottery industry used 1,500,000 tons of coal to fire its ovens and kilns. After the Second World War, coal fired bottle ovens and kilns were replaced by electric or gas fired tunnel kilns. Between 1945 and 1966, many small firms closed and others amalgamated to form large companies. In 1966, there were about 66,000 people employed in the industry of whom 48,000 were women.

(The photograph was taken in the warehouse at the Gladstone Pottery Museum (Longton) by J. Rutter and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.)

BC/FC(1)

FOCUS ON KIDSGROVE: The Brindley Tunnel

Brindley Tunnel (2)

The Trent and Mersey Canal runs from Preston Brook near Runcorn to Shardlow in Derbyshire It was built by James Brindley and his brother in law Hugh Henshall.

It took 600 men eleven years to construct the canal. Work began on July 26th, 1766 when Josiah Wedgwood cut the first sod near Tunstall Bridge at Brownhills in the Chatterley Valley.

The Brindley Tunnel that took the canal through Harecastle Hill between Chatterley and Kidsgrove is a feat of civil engineering which merits World Heritage Site status in its own right.

Described as the eighth wonder of the world when it was opened, the tunnel’s historical importance has been ignored by the City of Stoke-on-Trent and the Borough of Newcastle-under-Lyme.

One of the first canal tunnels to be built, it was 2,880 yards long and nine feet wide.

Branch tunnels led to underground loading bays in collieries and mines where small boats were loaded with coal or ironstone. These tunnels which ran directly into the mine workings are the earliest known examples of true horizon mining.

Opened in 1777, the Trent and Mersey Canal was a commercial success, and it quickly became one of England’s major inland waterways.

By the beginning of the 19th century, the Brindley Tunnel could not cope with the number of narrowboats using the canal. The tunnel was too narrow to take boats going in both directions. It took about two hours for a boat to pass through the tunnel. Bottlenecks developed at Kidsgrove and Chatterley where boatmen had to wait until they were allowed to enter.

The tunnel did not have a towpath. It was a legging tunnel. Narrowboats were “legged” through the tunnel by men who lay on their backs and used their feet to “walk” along its walls.

A second tunnel, designed by Thomas Telford, was constructed between 1824 and 1827 by civil engineering contractors Pritchard & Hoof. The firm specialised in building canal tunnels. Daniel Pritchard said that except for the Brindley Tunnel the rock at Harecastle Hill “was much harder than the rock any tunnel had ever been driven in before”.

The Brindley Tunnel remained in use until 1914 when subsidence made it unsafe.

Copyright 2010 Betty Cooper and David Martin

Photograph © Copyright Robin Webster and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence.